Innovation plays a crucial role in the economy of nations worldwide. In Latin America, countries foster competitiveness through public and private incentives to support innovation. Moreover, entrepreneurship incentives seek to improve countries’ performance, although factors such as low business growth rates and informality can compromise it. Despite the efforts, there are several difficulties in achieving competitiveness, and few studies in developing countries. Therefore, the article explores the relationship between the factors that influence competitiveness, especially the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in Brazil and Peru. The research uses quantitative-qualitative methodology through modeling and simulation and a case study. The authors use the Affinities Theory to verify the relationship between the indicators that make up the competitiveness landscape and its most significant and attractive factors, adapting the methodology established by the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) World Competitiveness ranking. As a result, this algorithm allows us to know the relationships between five factors of economic attractiveness and four competitiveness indicators. As its main contributions, the study advances the frontier of knowledge about innovation and entrepreneurship, as few studies explore competitiveness in developing countries. Also, it offers a detailed explanation of the application of this algorithm, allowing researchers to reproduce this methodology in other scenarios. Practically, it might support policymakers in formulating development strategies and stimuli for business competitiveness. In addition, academic and business leaders can strengthen university-business collaboration with applied research in innovation and entrepreneurship. One limitation would be the number of countries participating in the research. The authors suggest future lines of research.
Barcellos-Paula, L.; Castro-Rezende, A.; Alvares, D.F. Fuzzy Algorithm Applied to Factors Influencing Competitiveness: A Case Study of Brazil and Peru through Affinities Theory. Axioms 2023, 12, 1038. https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms12111038